Ribes Sp - Currant

Family: Grossulariaceae - Gooseberry

(Arabic: for plants of this genus) [Schultheis & Donoghue 2004 Syst Bot 29:77–96; Senters & Soltis 2003 Taxon 52:51–66] [Jepson]


Local Species;

  1. Ribes acerifolium - maple-leaved currant
  2. Ribes aureum - golden currant
  3. Ribes bracteosum - stink currant
  4. Ribes divaricatum ssp divaricatum - wild black gooseberry
  5. Ribes inerme var inerme - white-stemmed gooseberry
  6. Ribes lacustre - black gooseberry
  7. Ribes laxiflorum - trailing black currant
  8. Ribes lobbii - gummy gooseberry
  9. Ribes sanguineum - red-flowering currant
  10. Ribes viscosissimum - sticky currant

Ribes sanguineum

Ribes sanguineum

Ribes sanguineum


Habitat/Range

Status

Ecological Indicator Information

R.bracteosum; "A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American deciduous shrub distributed more in the Pacific than in the Cordilleran region. Occurs in hypermaritime to maritime cool mesothermal climates on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils; its occurrence increases with increasing precipitation and decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Scattered in semi­open forests on water-receiving (floodplain and stream-edge) sites. Usually associated with Alnus rubra, Oplopanax horridus, and Rubus spectabilis. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms." [IPBC-E-flora-3]

R. divaricatum ssp divaricatum; "A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to montane, Western North American deciduous shrub distributed more in the Pacific than in the Cordilleran region. Occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on moderately dry to fresh, nitrogen-medium soils; its occurrence decreases with increasing elevation and continentality. Sporadic in semi-open Douglas-fir forests on water­shedding sites; persists on cutover areas. Characteristic of early-seral communities." [IPBC-E-flora-4]

R. lacustre; "A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Asian and transcontinental North American deciduous shrub. Occurs on fresh to moist, nitrogen-rich soils within boreal, temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence increases with increasing continentality. Common in semi-open forests on water-receiving sites, less often on water­shedding sites. Usually associated with Acer glabrum, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus parvifIorus, Smilacina stellata, and Valeriana sitchensis. A nitrophytic species characteristic of Moder and Mull humus forms." [IPBC-E-flora-6]

R. laxiflorum; "A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Asian and Western North American deciduous shrub distributed equally in the Pacific and Cordilleran regions. Occurs on very moist to wet, nitrogen-rich soils (Moder or Mull humus forms) within boreal, cool temperate, and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence increases with increasing continentality. Sporadic in semi-open and open­canopy forests on water-receiving and water­collecting sites. A nitrophytic species characteristic of nutrient-rich wetlands." [IPBC-E-flora-7]

R.lobbii; "Shade-intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American deciduous shrub distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Species occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on very dry to moderately dry, nitrogen-medium soils; their occurrence decreases with increasing elevation, precipitation, and continentality. Sporadic to scattered in early-seral communities and open-canopy Douglas-fir forests on water-shedding sites. Characteristic of moisture­deficient sites." [IPBC-E-flora-8]

R. sanguineum; "Shade-intolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American deciduous shrub distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Species occurs in maritime to submaritime cool mesothermal climates on very dry to moderately dry, nitrogen-medium soils; their occurrence decreases with increasing elevation, precipitation, and continentality. Sporadic to scattered in early-seral communities and open-canopy Douglas-fir forests on water-shedding sites. Characteristic of moisture­deficient sites." [IPBC-E-flora-9]


Species Mentioned:


Hazards


Edible Uses

Other Uses

Medicinal Uses
Native Americans made various decoctions of currants for ailments ranging from toothache to snakebite.


Edible Uses of Berries

Stink Currant (Ribes bracteosum): Tend to be slightly bland, but not at all unpleasant, and were widely used. Eaten fresh.
Harvesting: Generally picked in August and September.
Preparation: Usually eaten with large quantities of seal or whale oil or ooligan grease; some people claim that without this addition they would cause a stomach ache or constipation. They were generally cooked, by boiling to a jam-like consistency, then eaten with oil or animal/fish grease, and later, sugar or molasses.
Storage: For winter use, the berries were boiled in wooden boxes, then poured into wooden frames set on skunk cabbage leaves and dried in cakes over a slow fire. Often they were mixed with salal berries for drying. The dried cakes were reconstituted by soaking overnight in water before being used. Can be frozen or made into jam. [????]


Uses of Related Sp

Red Currant - Ribes rubrum

"Medicinal Parts: The medicinal parts are the fruit and leaves." [PDR]
"Habitat: The plant is indigenous to Western Europe." [PDR]
Phytochemistry
"Fruit acids: chief fruit acid is citric acid; other acids include malic acid, isocitric acid and tartartic acid" [PDR]
"Monosaccharides/polysaccharides (7%): D-glucose, D-fructose" [PDR]
"Pectins (15%)" [PDR]
"Fatty oil (in the seeds 20%) with gamma-linolenic acid (6%)" [PDR]
"Ascorbic acid (vitamin C, 0.005 to 0.015%)" [PDR]
"Caffeic acid derivatives: including caffeoyl glucose, p-cumaric acid-O-glucoside" [PDR]
Effects
"Red Currant is a source of vitamin C and exhibits in vitro radical scavenger qualities. The fruit and juice are considered cooling and antiscorbutic and have often been used as a febrifuge. The jelly prepared from the berries has an antiseptic effect and was often used to treat burns to prevent the formation of blisters. The leaves are said to have emmenagogic properties." [PDR]

BLACK CURRANT FRUIT (Ribes nigrum L.) [HMH Duke]
"Entries are for fruits rather than seeds; seed oil is a by-product! For leaves, see next entry. Leaves not generally considered food."
"Activities (Black Currant Fruit) — Analgesic (f; SKJ); Angioprotective (1; X3635653); Antialzheimeran (1; COX; FNF); Antiarthritic (1; COX; FNF); Antibacterial (1; PNC); Anticancer (1; COX; FNF); Anticholera (1; PNC); Antiinflammatory (1; COX; PNC); Antipyretic (f; PNC); Antisecretory (1; PNC); Antiseptic (1; PH2); Antispasmodic (1; PH2; PNC); Astringent (1; APA); Depurative (f; EFS); Diaphoretic (f; EFS; FEL); Digestive (f; EFS); Diuretic (f; EFS; PNC); Hypotensive (1; PH2; PNC); Lipoperoxidase-Inhibitor (1; PH2); Vasoprotective (1; PNC); Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor (1; PH2)".
"Dosages (Black Currant Fruit) — 600–6000 mg/day; 4 (250 mg) capsules 2 ×/day; 1–2 tsp chopped leaf, up to several ×/day (APA); 5–10 ml fruit syrup, 1–several ×/day (PHR; PH2); 1 glassful fruit juice/day; gargle with 1 part juice/1 part water (PHR)."
"Extracts (Black Currant Fruit) — As a major source of the major COX-2 Inhibitor ([+]-catechin), this might be viewed by enthusiasts as another herbal miracle aspirin (COX). Anthocyanins and polyphenols in berries of several Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium spp. have in vitro antiradical activity on chemically generated superoxide radicals. The extracts also inhibit xanthine oxidase. All crude extracts were highly active toward chemically generated superoxide radicals. Ribes nigrum extracts exhibited most activity, being the richest in both anthocyanins and polyphenols. But Ribes rubrum extracts seem to contain more active substances (X1332092)."
BLACK CURRANT LEAF
"Activities (Black Currant Leaf) — Analgesic (f; KAB); Antiexudative (1; PH2); Antiinflammatory (1; APA); Antiprostaglandin (1; PH2); Astringent (f; APA); Diaphoretic (f; EFS); Diuretic (1; EFS; PH2); Fungicide (1; APA); Hypotensive (1; PH2; PNC); Saluretic (1; PH2)."
"Dosages (Black Currant Leaf) — 1–2 tsp (2-4 g) leaf/150 ml boiling water, strain after 10 minutes, 3–4 ×/day (APA; PHR; PH2)".
"Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Black Currant Leaf) — Not covered (CAN). Leaves not covered (AHP). Not covered by Commission E (KOM). Leaves contraindicated in edema stemming from reduced cardiac or renal activity (PHR; PH2). “A salidiuretic effect is attributed to the drug through a ‘diuretic’ factor that is not clearly defined” (HOC). That’s the only place I have seen it called salidiuretic, but I prefer Tyler’s frequent term, saluretic."
BLACK CURRANT SEED OIL
"Activities (Black Currant Seed Oil) — Antiinflammatory (1; APA); Antiseptic (1; PH2); Antispasmodic (1; PH2; PNC); Lipoperoxidase-Inhibitor (1; PH2); Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor (1; PH2)."
"Indications (Black Currant Seed Oil) — Alcoholism (1; FNF); Arthrosis (1; APA); Cardiopathy (1; APA); Cramp (1; PH2; PNC); Eczema (1; FNF); High Blood Pressure (1; APA); Infection (1; PH2); Inflammation (1; APA; FNF); PMS (1; APA; FNF); Stroke (1; FNF); Syndrome-X (1; SYN)."
"Dosages (Black Currant Seed Oil) — 200–400 mg capsules StX for 14–19% GLA (APA); for atopic eczema, 4 (250 mg) capsules 2 ×/day (APA)."
"Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Black Currant Seed Oil) — Fruit Class 1; seed not covered (AHP). Not covered by Commission E (KOM)."

Cultivation

Hedge: When grown thickly around the borders of your property, currants and gooseberries make an ideal natural fence to keep out wandering trespassers.

The Navajo used a variety of wax currant as a guide for when to plant corn. As soon as the stems became green they ploughed, and as soon as the leaves emerged they planted.

R. sanguineum; Tolerates maritime exposure and can be grown as an informal hedge[29, 49]. It provides reasonable shelter when in leaf but is rather bare and gives little protection in winter[K]. [PFAF]

Ribes spp.; "Plants start to bear at 3 to 5 years. The seeds can remain viable for as long as 13 to 17 years." [NSSH Bubel]

Ribes spp.; "Breaking Dormancy: Many ripe seeds will germinate in spring after fall planting, but a certain number of seeds also seem to stay dormant for varying periods - an advantage for the plant in adapting to changing growing conditions, some seeds are always there waiting for better weather. Some Ribes seeds have hard seed coats, and most need a fairy long period of cold stratification. Stratify the seeds at 340F to 40 0F (1 0C to 4 0C) for three to four months." [NSSH Bubel]


References


Page last modified on Wednesday, July 24, 2019 9:01 PM