Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader. is a body of notes and excerpts taken from a variety of books, journals, and online sources. It's objective is to provide researchers with a quick view of where to begin when looking for utilitarian biota. Emphasis has been placed on looking for similar traits between species, genera, and families. By condensing material from a wide variety of disciplines, it is hoped that a lack of information on related species can be further researched and documented with a hitherto unknown degree of expediency.

Photographs may be used freely unless otherwise indicated. Drawings, range maps, figures and material are property of their respective copyright owners. All information on this site is provided without cost, as pertaining to Fair Use, for educational purposes and public discorse only.

No guarantee can be made as to the accuracy or authenticity of the material.



The information presented on this site is provided for educational purposes. Self diagnosis and treatment, without due diligence, could be harmful and is not encouraged. Some information & images may be copyright. Every effort has been made to present the information in the spirit with which it was originally presented. Some data has been omitted for legal and/or practical consideration. There is some data not covered in the scope of this project, including, but not limited to, cell culture and large-dose animal studies. I have made comparisons and links between related species which may later prove erroneous. I have not verified the information for accuracy or authenticity. Many of the plants presented are poisonous, have poisonous properties, or could cause illness through misuse, allergic reaction, drug interactions and/or environmental contaminants. Please use caution and mindfulness when harvesting any species for any use.