Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Oxeye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare



"Leucanthemum vulgare is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) at a medium rate..
It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera, self.The plant is self-fertile..
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure."[PFAF]
General: Perennial herb from a creeping rhizome; stems erect, solitary to several, sparingly branched, usually glabrous, with a sage-like odour, 20-80 cm tall. [IFBC-E-flora]
Leaves: Basal leaves alternate, egg-shaped to spoon-shaped, stalked, pinnately lobed or toothed, 4-15 cm long; stem leaves reduced and becoming unstalked and nearly entire upwards. [IFBC-E-flora]
Flowers: Heads with ray and disk flowers, solitary at the ends of branches; involucres 7-11 mm tall; involucral bracts narrowly lanceolate, with a narrow, dark-brown submarginal area; ray flowers white, 12-20 mm long; disk flowers yellow. [IFBC-E-flora]
Fruits: Achenes cylindric or nearly so, black, 10-ribbed; pappus lacking. [IFBC-E-flora]
Habitat / Range: Mesic to dry roadsides, pastures and waste places in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common throughout BC S of 56degreeN; introduced from Eurasia. [IFBC-E-flora]
Status: Exotic [E-flora]



Other Uses

Medicinal Uses

"Oxeye Daisy decreases secretions when taken internally, and dries up and disinfects when applied externally. It is usually best when taken warm (not hot) or simply at room temperature. Use it for bronchitis or asthma characterized by moist, hypersecreting mucosa, with copious watery secretions, and red, inflamed membranes. It has some of the anti-inflammatory effects found in its relative Feverfew, although not enough to induce possible side effects." [MPPW] Menomini Indians used it for fevers (H H Smith. 1923). [DPL Watts] The whole plant, and especially the flowers[7], is antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, tonic and vulnerary[4, 7, 21]. It is harvested in May and June then dried for later use[4]."[PFAF]


Pharmacology & Phytochemistry


The whole plant, especially the flowers, is;

  • Antiinflammatory (1; FAD); [HMH Duke]
  • Antipyretic (f; DEM); [HMH Duke]
  • Antisecretory (1; WO2); [HMH Duke]
  • Antispasmodic (1; FAD; PH2; WO2); [HMH Duke]
  • antitussive, [PFAF]
  • Collyrium (f; DEM; FAD); [HMH Duke]
  • Dermatitigenic (1; WO2); [HMH Duke]
  • diaphoretic, [PFAF]
  • Diuretic (f; PH2; WO2); [HMH Duke]
  • Emetic (1; WO2); [HMH Duke]
  • emmenagogue [PFAF]
  • Tonic (f; DEM; FAD; PH2; WO2) [HMH Duke]
  • vulnerary. [PFAF]


  • parthenolide [HMH Duke]
  • artecanin [HMH Duke]
  • canin [HMH Duke]
  • 3-beta-hydroxyparthenolide [HMH Duke]
  • secotanoparthenolide [HMH Duke]
  • Platyphylline [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Senecionine [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Choline [Azimova Alkaloids]
  • Aerial Part - Essential oil, % on air dry wt: 0.4–0.5 [LLCEOPS]


Oxeye DaisyLeucanthemum vulgare [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Part:LeavesPer 100 g fresh weight
Water (g)77Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)-
Protein (g)-Riboflavin (mg)0.39Calcium (mg)-
Carbohydrate (g)-Vitamin C (mg)29.3Sodium (mg)-

Oxeye DaisyLeucanthemum vulgare [Turner, Kuhnlein]

Part:Leaves (Cooked)Per 100 g fresh weight
Water (g)93Thiamine (mg)-Magnesium (mg)-
Protein (g)-Riboflavin (mg)0.05Calcium (mg)-


Cultivation in India: For its cultivation, the field is ploughed 3–4 times during June–July and brought to a fine tilt. About 50 tonnes of farm yard manure is incorporated per hectare. Beds of 4 × 3 m are formed, and about 2.5 lakh suckers or rooted cuttings are planted per hectare in April and August. The crop is irrigated once in 8–10 days but does not tolerate water loggings. The flowers come after 3–4 months of its plantation.[Singh HNDP]


Seed - sow spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.[PFAF]

"20–40+ species: Europe, northern Africa." [Jepson]

Local Species;

  1. Leucanthemum vulgare - oxeye daisy [E-flora]


Page last modified on Monday, January 3, 2022 0:43 AM