Index
Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Hieracium Sp. - Hawkweed

Family: Asteraceae (Aster) [E-flora]


Hieracium aurantiacum

Hieracium aurantiacum

Hieracium aurantiacum

"Perennial herb; stolons generally 0 (in California); sap milky; herbage glabrous or with long simple hairs, shorter, branched hairs, and/or gland-tipped hairs. Stem: erect, 1–12 dm. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate. Inflorescence: heads liguliflorous, few to many in raceme-like, ± flat-topped, or panicle-like clusters; involucre cylindric to ± bell-shaped; phyllaries in 2–4 series of different lengths; receptacle ± flat, epaleate. Flower: 6–150+; ligule generally yellow (white or orange, occasionally ± purple-tinged), readily withering. Fruit: generally ± cylindric (± urn-shaped), tan to red-brown or black; pappus of many slender, brittle, minutely barbed bristles, dull white, straw-colored, or tan to ± brown.
± 250 species: ± worldwide. (Greek: hawk) [Strother 2006 FNANM 19:278–294]" [Jepson]

Local Species;

  1. Hieracium albiflorum - white hawkweed [E-flora][PCBC]
  2. Hieracium aurantiacum - orange-red king devil [E-flora][PCBC]
  3. Hieracium gracile - slender hawkweed [E-flora][PCBC]
  4. Hieracium lachenalii - European hawkweed [E-flora]
  5. Hieracium maculatum - mottled hawkweed [E-flora]
  6. Hieracium murorum - wall hawkweed [E-flora]
  7. Hieracium pilosella - mouse-ear hawkweed [E-flora]
  8. Hieracium piloselloides - tall hawkweed [E-flora]
  9. Hieracium sabaudum - European king devil [E-flora]
  10. Hieracium scouleri - Scouler's hawkweed [E-flora]
  11. Hieracium triste - woolly hawkweed [E-flora][PCBC]
  12. Hieracium umbellatum - narrow-leaved hawkweed [E-flora][PCBC]

Other Species in B.C.

Edible Uses

Uses of Non-local Sp.

"The hawkweeds, Hieracium L. (Cichoreae, Asteraceae), constitute a large and widespread genus of perennial herbs, well known for their taxonomic complexity. Although almost 10,000 species have been described at one time or another, the most recent comprehensive treatment [1] recognized 756 species. Zahn [1] grouped these into four subgenera: (a) Euhieracium, (b) Stenotheca, (c) Mandonia and (d) Pilosella. North American taxa belong to either Euhieracium, which contains many of the apomictic taxa for which the genus is noteworthy, or Stenotheca wherein apomixis has not been found." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

"The genus Hieracium L., as here understood, contains several thousand microspecies, the great majority of which have little or no pollen, and reproduce apomictically. " [Bate-smith1968]

"Norway has at least 24 “kinds” of hawkweed that are recognized (Mossberg and Stenberg 1994). A major problem in recognizing species in the genus is that there is so much apomixis that individual populations often seem distinctive (Fernald 1950, Mabberley 1997). Early experiments with genetics on this genus failed because it was not recognized that they were not outcrossing plants. Most of the plants are triploid or tetraploid apomicts and the modern trend is to call them “microspecies” (Mabberley 1997)." [Austin FE]

"The wide distribution of the pharmacopoeias in which these Hieracium were used suggests independent discovery of their virtues. However, the European species were ancient remedies. John Gerarde wrote in 1597 of H. aurantiacum: “The decoction or the distilled water of this herbe taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, conduce much to the mundifying and healing of greene wounds; for some boyle the herb in wine, and so give it to the wounded patient, and also apply it outwardly.” Culpeper (1653) considered H. pilosella a “cooling, somewhat drying and binding herb for a wide range of ailments.” Many species contain inulin. Hieracium pilosella contains antibiotic components, including umbelliferone and luteolin (Hocking 1997)." [Austin FE]

Phytochemistry

"In the genus Hieracium L. sensu lato, as in the Compositae generally (cf. Hegnauer1), the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol occupy rather a background position. In Hieracium L. sensu lato the most conspicuous flavonoid constituent is the flavone luteolin, recorded in H. pilosella L. (=Pilosella oficinarum C. H. & F. W. Schulz)3 and H. speluncarum A.-T. (= Hieracium sect. Amplexicaulia Zahn) (as H. pulmonarioides Vil1.q. Caffeic and p-coumaric acids are regularly, and ferulic acid is frequently, present in the family. Chemically related to p-coumaric acid is the rather uncommon coumarin umbelliferone (I) and this has been reported to be present in H. pilosella L. (=Pilosella oficinarum C. H. & F. W. Schultz)3,4 and Hieracium peleteranum Merat (= Pilosella peleterana (M&at) C. H. & F. W. Schultz),5 but not in Hieracium speluncarum A.-T. (= Hieracium sect. Amplexicaulia Zahn) (as H. pulmonarioides Vill.3)" [Bate-smith1968]

"On morphological and other grounds, Sell and West,6 have accepted the genus Pilosella of Hil1,7 and later defined by C. H. and F. W. Schultz,8 for the group of species now usually placed as subgenus Pilosella of Hieracium, which includes Hieracium pilosella and H. peleteranum. It seemed possible that the possession of umbelliferone might be a distinctive feature of the genus Pilosella,..." [Bate-smith1968]

"Five Hieracium species were examined for flavonoid constituents: H. albertinum, H. albiflorum, H. cynoglossoides, H. gracile and H. umbellatum. The major compounds present in all species were mono- and diglycosides of apigenin and luteolin. Chrysoeriol occurred per se in several species. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside was seen only in H. umbellatum." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

"...,apigenin, luteolin, luteolin-7-O- glucoside and a luteolin-7-O-diglucoside [9] in H. murorum L. ssp. grandidens (Dahlst.) Zahn var. minoriceps Zahn,..." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

"luteolin-7-O-glucoside [10] in H, staticifofium Viii. and H. pilosella L." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

"A luteolin-7-Otrioside was isolated from H. graci/e which on hydrolysis gave glucose, arabinose and glucuronic acid. Partial hydrolysis gave luteolin-7-Oglucoside and luteolin-7-O-arabinosylglucoside." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

Cultivation

Mycorrhizal Relationships: "Plant species, like Hieracium, thus, have a high MSS [mycorrhizal species sensitivity] because they respond so differently to different AMF [Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal] species..." [Heijden ME]

Insect Attraction: "Thomson (1978) found that Hieracium florentinum received more visits from pollinators when it was mixed with Hieracium auranticum than when alone." [Pugnaire FPE] "To date 12 aphid taxa are known to be host-specific on Hieracium" [Holman,1988]

Biological Control: (Experimental) "The involvement of Entyloma as a widely successful agent... may indicate the promise of another smut fungus as a biocontrol agent of Hieracium spp., a perennial that is a highly invasive exotic weed both in New Zealand and the northwestern U.S." [Khachatourians AMB2]

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Hieracium venosum - Rattlesnake Weed

"Hieracium venosum L. (Fam. Compositae.) Rattlesnake Weed. ...The plant is common, growing in dry places and open woods from Maine to Georgia and westward. The leaves and roots are thought to possess medicinal virtues, and, being deemed astringent, have been used in hemorrhagic diseases. The juice is supposed by some to have the power of removing warts. Dose of infusion (two ounces to the pint), a wineglassful (60 mils)." [Remington USD20]

Range: Eastern N. America [PFAF]

Medicinal Use

References


Hieracium albiflorum - white hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a woody root and often an unbranched, short stem-base; stems erect, usually solitary, branched above, loosely bristly-hairy at least at the base, becoming glabrous upwards, exuding a milky juice when broken, 0.3-1.2 m tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry roadsides, fields, grasslands, shrublands and forests in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common throughout BC; N to AK, YT and NT, E to SK and S to CO, UT and CA." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Native [E-flora]

Synonyms

References


Hieracium aurantiacum - orange-red king devil

"General: Perennial herb from a short or more often elongate rhizome and commonly with short, stout stolons; stems erect, usually solitary, leafless or with 1 or 2 reduced leaves, long bristly-hairy and also with starlike hairs and glandular above, exuding a milky juice when broken, 10-60 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry roadsides, fields and waste places in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; frequent in BC south of 55degreeN; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Phytochemistry

"Reports of flavonoids include the finding of anthocyanins, luteolin and its 7-O-glucoside [8] in H. aurantiacum L." [Guppy&Bohm,1976]

References


Hieracium gracile - slender hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome; stems erect, usually solitary, sparsely branched above, glabrous to hairy, the hairs starlike or short soft-hairy and sometimes glandular, especially above, exuding milky juice when broken, 3-35 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Notes: Easily confused with H. triste which, upon close examination, lacks glandular hairs on the stalks of the heads and involucres." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Moist to mesic forests, meadows, streambanks and snowbeds in the upper montane to alpine zones; common throughout BC; N to AK, YT and NT and S to N CA and NM." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Native [E-flora]

Synonyms

References


Hieracium lachenalii - European hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome; stems erect, usually solitary, hairy, the hairs bristly or starlike, or glabrous, exuding milky juice when broken, 20-80 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry roadsides, gravelly riverbeds, forest openings, waste areas and disturbed areas in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in WC and SW BC; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

Synonyms

References


Hieracium maculatum - mottled hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome; stems erect, usually solitary, hairy, the hairs bristly or starlike, or glabrous, exuding milky juice when broken, 20-80 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry roadsides, gravelly riverbeds, forest openings, waste areas and disturbed areas in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in WC and SW BC; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

References


Hieracium murorum - wall hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome or woody stem-base; stems erect, usually solitary, sparsely hairy, the hairs bristly or starlike, exuding milky juice when broken, 0.2-1.0 m tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Notes: The taxonomy of the "H. murorum" group, as with many European Hieracia, is extremely difficult due to its polyploid-apomictic nature." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Dry roadsides and waste areas in the lowland and steppe zones; rare in SW and SC BC; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

References


Hieracium pilosella - mouse-ear hawkweed

Subtaxa Present in B.C.

Hieracium pilosella ssp. micradenium [E-flora]

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome, stolons present; stolons mat-forming; stems erect, sticky-hairy or somewhat woolly-hairy, exuding milky juice when broken, 25-40 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Dry roadsides, lawns and waste places in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; rare in S BC; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

Activities: Antispasmodic, Diaphoretic and Diuretic. The flowered aerial parts (infusion/decoction) are antidiarrhoeic.[Rai EthPlants] "Antifungal. Relax the muscles of the bronchial tubes, stimulate the cough reflex, reduce mucus." [CRNAH]

Indications: Indicated for cancer, specifically oral and genital. Aerial parts used in Northern Montenegro on wounds and for diabetes. Though its use was less known than most plants in the region. [????]

Composition

Ethnobotanical Usages: The herbage of H. pilocella has been used as a marijuana substitute, for psychoactive effect. [Schultes, Hofmann POG]

Cultivation: "...H. pilosella hardly grew in the absence of AM [Arbuscular Mycorrhizal] fungus, suggesting that AM symbiosis decreased the stress caused by soil acidity." [Miransari UMASS 1] H. pilosella from growing in Germany was found to contain the AMF species Glomus caesaris [Souza HAMF]

"Flowering has been shown in Hieracium piloselloides to be very sensitive to heavy metal contamination of the soil with reductions in leaf life span and delayed reproduction (Ryser and Saunder 2005)." [SoilBio-30]

References


Hieracium piloselloides - tall hawkweed

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

Synonyms

References


Hieracium sabaudum - European king devil

"General: Perennial herb from a short, stout rhizome, without stolons; stems erect, solitary, with non-glandular and starlike hairs, exuding milky juice when broken, 0.3-1.8 m tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry forest openings, roadsides and waste places in the lowland zone; locally frequent in SW BC, known from the lower Fraser valley; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

Synonyms

References


Hieracium scouleri - Scouler's hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, often stout rhizome; stems erect, simple, solitary or few, nearly glabrous, exuding milky juice when broken, 30-100 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Notes: Until recently (Douglas 1986), the three varieties treated here were recognized at the specific level, although a number of taxonomists (Cronquist 1955, Guppy 1978) had previously suggested that they were probably better treated as infraspecific taxa. The three taxa are separated mainly by the density of bristly hairs on the plants (Guppy 1978). They may be distinguished as follows:

"Habitat / Range Mesic to dry grasslands, shrublands and forest openings in the steppe and montane zones; common in SC and SE BC; E to AB and S to UT and CA." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Native [E-flora]

References


Hieracium triste - woolly hawkweed

"General: Perennial herb from a short, often stout rhizome; stems erect, simple or sometimes branched, few to several, sparsely to moderately short or long soft-hairy, sometimes sparsely glandular-hairy above, exuding milky juice when broken, 3-45 cm tall." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Notes: Easily confused with H. gracile which has glandular-tipped hairs on the stalks of the heads and involucres." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Moist to mesic meadows, streambanks and talus slopes in the subalpine to the alpine zones; widespread in BC, especially common in N BC; amphiberingian, N to AK, YT and NT and E to AB." [IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Native [E-flora]

References


Hieracium umbellatum - narrow-leaved hawkweed

"Hieracium umbellatum is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in). It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Apomictic. The plant is self-fertile. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil." [PFAF]

"Range: From China. [CRNAH] "Moist to dry meadows, streambanks, grasslands, shrublands and forests in the lowland, steppe and montane zones; common throughout most of BC; circumpolar, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NB and S to NJ, MI, NE, ND, CO, ID and OR; Eurasia." [IFBC-E-flora] "Roadsides, banks, open woods, copses, heaths and rocks, mainly in lowland areas[17]. Most of Europe, including Britain, to N. Asia and N. America." [PFAF]

Constituents: "Vitamin C, tannic acid". "Relieve pain, bladder infection, diarrhea." [CRNAH]

Food use: "Young leaves[105, 177]. No further details are given except that the sub-species H. umbellatum japonicum is used." [PFAF]

Propagation & Cultivation

"Seed - sow spring in a cold frame and only just cover the seed. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. If you have sufficient seed it can be sown outdoors in situ in the spring or autumn[238]. Division in spring or autumn[238]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring." [PFAF]

"Prefers a well-drained low-fertility soil, neutral or acid, and a sunny position[200]." [PFAF]

Synonyms

References


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