Index

Cystopteris Sp. - Fragile fern

Family: Dryopteridaceae (Wood Fern family) [E-flora]

"Rhizome generally short-creeping. Leaf: stipe ± fleshy, often with few scales, base ×-section with 2 vascular strands; blade 2–4-pinnate, pinnae sides unequal, acroscopic pinnules more spreading, larger, more incised; veins free. Sporangia: sori round; indusia hood-like, arched over sorus, attached on side away from margin, often obscure in mature sori.
± 20 species: generally temperate, a few at high elevations in tropics. (Greek: bladder fern, from indusia) Often confused with Woodsia (pinnae sides equal; more fragmented indusia encircling sorus base). Sole sp. of Cystopteris in California highly polymorphic, may represent a sp. complex. Malformed spores produced by some plants, possibly indicative of hybridization, existence of different ploidal levels (numbers of chromosome sets)." [Jepson]

Local Species;

  1. Cystopteris fragilis - fragile fern [E-flora]
  2. Cystopteris montana - mountain bladder fern [E-flora]

Hazards

References


Cystopteris fragilis - fragile fern

Habitat / Range
"Dry to moist rocks, talus slopes, crevices, ledges, and forest margins from the lowland and steppe to alpine zones; common throughout BC; cosmopolitan, N to AK, YT and NT, E to NF, and S to ME, NH, PA, NC, IL, KS, NM, AZ and CA; Eurasia, Africa, New Zealand, Australia, S America, Antarctic Islands." [IFBC-E-flora]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

"Cystopteris fragilis is a deciduous Fern growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. The seeds ripen from Jul to August. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil." [PFAF]

"General: Deciduous perennial arising in clusters from a short, creeping rhizome."[IFBC-E-flora]
"Notes: A variable species, which in this concept includes both plants with spiny spores (C. fragilis sensu stricto) and those with warty spores. Plants with warty spores were segregated in Europe as C. dickieana. Ceska & Ceska (unpubl.) found that our populations with warty spores are not uniform in other characters and agree with C. Haufler that "some of the American material ... may not be conspecific with material from the type locality of C. dickieana." (Lellinger 1985, p. 260)."[IFBC-E-flora]

Ecological Indicator Information
"A shade-tolerant/intolerant, submontane to alpine, cosmopolitan fern (transcontinental in North America). Occurs on fresh to very moist, nitrogen-medium soils within tundra, boreal, temperate, and mesothermal climates. Rare to sporadic in non-forested communities and semi-open forests on water-shedding or water-receiving sites. Characteristic of colluvial sites." [IPBC-E-flora]

Hazards

Edible Uses

Medicinal Uses

Propagation
"Spores - best sown as soon as ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. Germinates in 1 - 3 months at 20°c[164].Pot on small clumps of plantlets as soon as they are large enough to handle and keep humid until they are well established. Do not plant outside until the ferns are at least 2 years old. Division in spring." [PFAF]

Cultivation
"Prefers a shady position in a moist but well-drained soil, succeeding in most soil types[200]. Plants can tolerate up to 4 hours direct sun per day[200]. Prefers a pH between 6.5 and 7, but tolerates a range from 5.5 to 7.5[200]. Plants do especially well when grown in a shaded position on old mortared walls[219]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233]. Plants die back early in dry seasons[200]. A very ornamental plant[1]." [PFAF]
Groundcover: "Plants can be grown as a ground cover when planted out about 15cm apart each way[208]." [PFAF]

Synonyms
Cystopteris dickieana Sim [E-flora]
Filix fragilis (L.) Underw. [E-flora]

References


Cystopteris montana - mountain bladder fern

Habitat / Range
"Moist to wet calcareous scree slopes, rock outcrops and damp woods in the montane and subalpine zone; rare in N BC north of 54degreeN and in the Rocky Mountains; circumpolar, N to AK, YT and NT, E to AB, disjunct in ON, PQ and NF and disjunct S to CO; Eurasia." [IFBC-E-flora]

Origin Status: Native [E-flora]

"Cystopteris montana is a deciduous Fern growing to 0.3 m (1ft). It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. The seeds ripen from Jul to August.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It prefers moist soil." [PFAF]

"General: Deciduous perennial arising singly from a thin, long-creeping rhizome." [IFBC-E-flora]

Hazards

Thiaminase

"Although we have found no reports of toxicity for this species, a number of ferns contain carcinogens so some caution is advisable[200]. Many ferns also contain thiaminase, an enzyme that robs the body of its vitamin B complex. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove the thiaminase[172]." [PFAF]

Edible Uses

Propagation
"Spores - best sown as soon as ripe on the surface of a humus-rich sterilized soil. Keep the compost moist, preferably by putting a plastic bag over the pot. Germinates in 1 - 3 months at 20°c[164].Pot on small clumps of plantlets as soon as they are large enough to handle and keep humid until they are well established. Do not plant outside until the ferns are at least 2 years old. Division in spring." [PFAF]

Cultivation
"Prefers a shady position in a moist but well-drained soil, succeeding in most soil types[200]. Plants can tolerate up to 4 hours direct sun per day[200]. Prefers a pH between 6.5 and 7, but tolerates a range from 5.5 to 7.5[200]. Prefers high humidity, plants die back early in dry seasons[200]. Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233]. A very ornamental plant[1]. Plants spread by means of a creeping rhizome[1]." [PFAF]

Synonyms
Filix montana (Lam.) Underw. [E-flora]
Rhizomatopteris montana [E-flora]

References


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