Index
Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Cakile Sp. - Sea Rocket

Family: Brassicaceae (Mustard) [E-flora]

"Annual (perennial herb), fleshy, many-branched, glabrous.
Stem: erect or decumbent.
Leaf: fleshy, cauline, petioled or not, base not lobed.
Inflorescence: terminal, elongating.
Flower: sepal base not sac-like; petals white to lavender (0).
Fruit: silique or silicle, fleshy, in age corky, indehiscent, segmented, segments 2, transversely jointed, each generally 1-seeded; stigma entire or ± 2-lobed.
Seed: oblong.
7 species: shores, eastern North America, Europe, northern Africa. (Arabic name) [Rodman 1974 Contr Gray Herb 205:3–146]" [Jepson]

Key to the Species and Taxonomic Notes

1. Silicles slightly to much constricted at the joints, leaves mostly spoon-shaped or egg-shaped, wavy-margined and toothed, sometimes pinnately lobed or nearly entire......................................C. edentula
1. Silicles usually expanded at the joints into projecting wings; at least the lower leaves usually distinctly pinnately cleft..........................C. maritima [IFBC-E-flora]

Local Species;

  1. Cakile edentula - American searocket [E-flora]
  2. Cakile maritima - European searocket [E-flora]

Use of Non-local Species

References


Cakile edentula - American searocket

Subtaxa Present in B.C.

"Cakile edentula is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera.
Suitable for: light (sandy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers dry or moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. " [PFAF]

"Sea rocket's (Cakile edentula) fleshy, wedge- shaped, hairless, wavy-toothed, alternate leaves are about 3 inches long and 1 inch wide. Their succulence helps it conserve water -- a great advantage by the sea, where fresh water is at a premium. The small, pink-purple flowers, which grow in terminal clusters, are typical of the mustards, but the cone-shaped seedpods are unique. They look like the nose cones of rocket ships. They're round at the base and pointed at the tip. The resemblance is coincidental. Rocket is an old name for mustard. You find this salt-tolerant plant closer to the sea than almost anything that's not a seaweed. Its roots actually help hold the dunes together, so harvest with care." [Wildman]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]
"General: Annual herb from a taproot; stems freely branched, 10-50 cm tall, glabrous, base of lower stems often decumbent." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Leaves: Basal leaves widely egg- or spoon-shaped, fleshy, deeply toothed to wavy-margined and saw-toothed, with a broad stalk, 2-7 cm long; stem leaves similar." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Moist to wet sandy shorelines in the lowland zone; common in coastal BC; N to AK and S to CA, also along the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Coast." [IFBC-E-flora]

Hazards

"Don' t collect sea rocket on those beaches where sewers empty directly into the ocean, since this may affect the plant's safety." [Nyerges]

Edible Uses

Part: Greens Per 100 g fresh weight [Turner, Kuhnlein]
Water (g) 94 Thiamine (mg) - Magnesium (mg) -
Crude Fiber (g) - Vitamin A (RE) 4.4 Iron (mg) -

Cultivation & Propagation

"Prefers a light well-drained soil and a sunny position[1, 200]. This species is closely related to C. maritima[50]." [PFAF]

"Sea rocket is an annual that produces seed in the fall when the plant dies. These seeds sprout in early winter and spring. The plant is available for picking throughout most of the spring and summer. In fact, there are usually some leaves to be found year-round, but not in large amounts during the off-season." [Nyerges]

"Seed - sow late spring or early autumn in situ. Germination is usually rapid." [PFAF]

References

  1. [E-flora] https://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Cakile%20edentula&redblue=Both&lifeform=7 Accessed Dec 9, 2014; Accessed 01/22/2021
  2. [PFAF] http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cakile+edentula, Accessed June 22, 2015

Cakile maritima - European searocket

Subtaxa Present in B.C.

"Cakile maritima is a ANNUAL growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in).
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies, beetles, lepidoptera.
Suitable for: light (sandy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure." [PFAF]

"European sea rocket is an introduced European species of coastal beach systems that is now found in North America in several US states (AL, CA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, OR, PA, TX, VA, WA) and one Canadian province (BC) (USDA 2010). In BC, it was known only from the west coast of Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands until 2007, when it appeared in the Greater Vancouver area. Lomer (pers. com. 2009) reports that it appeared in that part of BC following a major storm in February 2006 that flooded homes in the Tsawwassen area. "The storm surge altered the beach, killing several inland shrubs and plants with salt water and covering acres with fresh deposits of sand. The next spring thousands of Cakile maritima showed up all over the beach at Tsawwassen...[it] is abundant at Boundary Bay now". This is an often sprawling, sometimes erect, annual taprooted beach species with distinctly pinnately lobed, stalked, lower leaves that are 3-6 cm long. Flowers are a pale lavender." [E-flora]

Status: Exotic [E-flora]

"General: Annual herb from a taproot; stems branched, 15-45 cm long, prostrate or ascending." [IFBC-E-flora]
"Leaves: Basal leaves egg-shaped or oblanceolate to deeply pinnately lobed, fleshy, the lower leaves usually distinctly pinnately lobed, stalked, 3-6 cm long; upper stem leaves less lobed or entire, unstalked." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Habitat / Range Mesic to moist disturbed areas in the lowland zone; rare in SW BC, known only from the W coast of Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands; introduced from Europe." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Additional Notes Until 2006, this species was known only from Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Islands. However, it is now reported from the BC mainland at Boundary Bay (Lomer 2009) and Iona Beach (Benson 2009, Taylor 2008). According to Lomer, following a wind storm and storm surge in February 2006, the beach in Tsawwassen was inundated with salt water and acres of fresh sand were deposited. "The next spring, thousands of Cakile maritima showed up all over the beach at Tsawwassen". The same storm likely brought the species to the Iona sand spit." [E-flora]

Edible Uses

Cultivation & Propagation

"Prefers a light well-drained soil and a sunny position[1, 200]. Plants are easily grown in a garden situation and can self-sow if the ground is disturbed by hoeing etc[K]. This species is closely related to C. edentula, which is native to N. America[17]. The seed is often dispersed by floating in sea water[17]." [PFAF]

"Seed - sow late spring or early autumn in situ. Germination is usually rapid." [PFAF]

Synonyms

References

  1. [E-flora] https://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Cakile%20maritima&redblue=Both&lifeform=7 Accessed Dec 9, 2014; Accessed 01/22/2021
  2. [PFAF] http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cakile+maritima, Accessed June 22, 2015

Page last modified on Wednesday, January 27, 2021 3:12 AM