Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader.

Abies - Fir

"Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, +- round to elliptic; bud generally +- spheric, generally < 1 cm, +- resinous. Leaf: 2--9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally +- flat; adaxially with 2 +- faint, longitudinal, +- white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 +- white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed Cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, +- free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 39 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: silver fir)" [Jepson]

Local Species;

Taxanomic Key

Brief Descriptions


Food Use



"Abies and sometimes pine, find general application as medicines among many Indian groups of northwest North America" [gottesfield1992] "In Svaneti, Abies. was used to stop bleeding from a wound. The needles are prepared as tea and to cure tuberculosis and ulcers (Bussmann et al. 2014, 2016a, b, 2017a,b,c)." [Batsatsashvili2016]

Fungal Relationships

Boletus Edulis SENSU LATO. - Abies spp. [Hall&Lyon]

Abies nordmanniana - Nornanns Fir

Habitat/Range "Caucasus: in mountain woods of Kuban, Western Transcaucasia and Central Caucasus Along the upper course of streams, tributaries, of Kuban, Rion, and Kura rivers" [Batsatsashvili2016]

Medicinal Use

"Abies nordmanniana is used to to heal eczema, 200 g resin, three egg yolks, and one glass salt-free lard are mixed together and applied to the diseased skin. The bandage is changed once in 2–3 days." [Batsatsashvili2016]

Food Use

"Young branches can be used for phkhali (vegetable spread made from a variety of herbs) (Bussmann et al. 2014, 2016a, b, 2017a, b, c)." [Batsatsashvili2016]


Page last modified on Monday, July 27, 2020 7:51 PM