Family: Pinaceae (Pine family)[E-flora] Index

Abies - Fir

"Stem: young bark smooth, with resin blisters, mature bark generally thick, deeply furrowed; young branches appearing whorled; twig without persistent, peg-like leaf bases, glabrous or hairy; leaf scars smooth, +- round to elliptic; bud generally +- spheric, generally < 1 cm, +- resinous. Leaf: 2--9 cm, sessile, twisted at base to be 2-ranked, often upcurved on upper twigs, generally +- flat; adaxially with 2 +- faint, longitudinal, +- white bands or not, midrib depressed or not; abaxially with 2 +- white bands or not, midrib ridge-like or not Seed Cone: erect, < 23 cm, maturing 1st year; stalk generally 0; bracts, scales deciduous; bract included or exserted, +- free from scale; axis persistent on stem, ultimately falling. Seed: with obvious resin deposits on surface; wing < 2.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 39 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Latin: silver fir)" [Jepson]

Local Species;

Taxanomic Key

Brief Descriptions

Ranges

Food Use

Other

Medicinal

"Abies and sometimes pine, find general application as medicines among many Indian groups of northwest North America" [gottesfield1992] "In Svaneti, Abies. was used to stop bleeding from a wound. The needles are prepared as tea and to cure tuberculosis and ulcers (Bussmann et al. 2014, 2016a, b, 2017a,b,c)." [Batsatsashvili2016]

Fungal Relationships

Boletus Edulis SENSU LATO. - Abies spp. [Hall&Lyon]

Abies nordmanniana - Nornanns Fir

Habitat/Range "Caucasus: in mountain woods of Kuban, Western Transcaucasia and Central Caucasus Along the upper course of streams, tributaries, of Kuban, Rion, and Kura rivers" [Batsatsashvili2016]

Medicinal Use

"Abies nordmanniana is used to to heal eczema, 200 g resin, three egg yolks, and one glass salt-free lard are mixed together and applied to the diseased skin. The bandage is changed once in 2–3 days." [Batsatsashvili2016]

Food Use

"Young branches can be used for phkhali (vegetable spread made from a variety of herbs) (Bussmann et al. 2014, 2016a, b, 2017a, b, c)." [Batsatsashvili2016]

References


Abies amabilis - Amabilis Fir

"Abies amabilis is an evergreen Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant is not wind tolerant.
It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution." [PFAF]

"This is a tall, evergreen, coniferous tree species found from Alaska south to northern California in forests with deep, well-drained soils."[IFBC-E-flora]

Status: Native.[E-flora]
General: "Tall, straight tree, up to 55 m tall, with dense cylindric or conical crown; bark grey to nearly white, smooth but becoming scaly with age, with resin blisters; branches flattened and spray-like." [IFBC-E-flora]
Leaves: "Needles flattened, blunt and mostly notched at the tip; shiny, dark green and grooved above, having two distinct silvery bands of stomata and ridged below; spreading to somewhat erect needles 1.5-3 cm long; strongly appressed needles on upper surface of twig 0.7-2 cm." [IFBC-E-flora]
Cones: "Seed cones erect, deep purple, 8-10 (15) cm long, 3.5-4 (5) cm thick, the bracts deciduous; pollen cones reddish." [IFBC-E-flora]

Habitat / Range

Moist to mesic forests with deep, well-drained soils in the lowland to subalpine zones; common in and W of Coast-Cascade Mountains, except Queen Charlotte Islands; N to SE AK and S to N CA. [IFBC-E-flora]

Ecological Indicator Information
"A very shade-tolerant, submontane to subalpine, Western North American evergreen conifer distributed more in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region (absent on Queen Charlotte Islands). Occurs in maritime to sub maritime sub-alpine boreal and summer-wet cool mesothermal climates on fresh to very moist soils; its occurrence increases with increasing elevation and precipitation, and decreases with increasing latitude and continentality. Grows in pure or mixed-species stands (usually with western or mountain hemlock) on water-shedding and water-receiving sites. Regenerates underneath closed-canopy stands, particularly on mycorrhizal Mors. (The mycorrhizae may explain this species' tolerance of nutrient-poor sites.) Most productive on submontane, fresh to moist, nutrient-rich (seepage) sites within wet cool mesothermal climates. Characteristic of wet maritime forests." [IPBC][E-flora]

Food Uses:

Other Uses:

Cultivation

"Requires a good moist but not water-logged soil in a sheltered position[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant[11, 81] but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Trees are somewhat shallow rooted and are therefore susceptible to strong winds[229]. Grows best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland[11]. It does very well on glacial moraines in Scotland[81]. When grown in an open position, the tree clothes itself to the ground with gracefully drooping branches, though on the whole, this species does not grow well in Britain[11]. Trees have been of variable growth in this country and seem to be short-lived[185]. The best and fastest growing specimens are to be found in the north and far west of the country[185]. Growth in girth can be very quick, 1.8 metres in 35 years has been recorded[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. The crushed leaves have an odour like orange peel[11]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. This species is often confused with A. nordmanniana[11]. A very ornamental plant[1]. Trees are sometimes grown as 'Christmas trees'[200]. Plants are susceptible to injury by aphis[11]." [PFAF]

Host species for the fungus Rhizopogon vulgaris [Chris walker,1999]

Propagation
"Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80]."[PFAF]

References

  1. [E-flora]http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Abies amabilis&redblue=Both&lifeform=1, Accessed Jan 12, 2015
  2. [PFAF]http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abies+amabilis, Accessed Jan 12, 2015

Abies grandis - Grand Fir

Habitat / Range

"Moist to mesic slopes and river terraces in the lowland and montane zones; frequent in SW BC, infrequent in SC BC; S to N CA, ID, W MT, SE WA and NE OR." [IFBC-E-flora]

"Abies grandis is an evergreen Tree growing to 75 m (246ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen from Sep to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution." [PFAF]

This is a tall evergreen, coniferous, tree species that is found from southern British Columbia (primarily southwestern BC) south to northern California.[IFBC-E-flora]

Status; Native.[E-flora]
General: Tall, straight tree, up to 80 m tall; bark greyish to light brown, with resin blisters, smooth to shallowly ridged, becoming flaky; branches flattened and spray-like. [IFBC-E-flora]
Leaves: Needles flat, rounded and usually notched at the tip; dark green and shallowly grooved above, having two distinct whitish bands of stomata below; definitely spreading horizontally, 2-4 (5) cm long. [IFBC-E-flora]
Cones: Seed cones erect, yellowish-green to green, 6-11 cm long, 3.5-4 cm thick, the bracts deciduous; pollen cones yellowish. [IFBC-E-flora]

USDA Blooming Period: Late Spring
USDA Fruit/Seed characteristics:

Ecological Indicator Information
"A shade-tolerant to shade-intolerant, submontane to montane, Western North American evergreen conifer distributed less in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Occurs in cool temperate and cool mesothermal climates; its occurrence decreases with increasing latitude, precipitation, and elevation. Grows in mixed-species stands (usually with Douglas-fir or western redcedar) on water-shedding and water-receiving sites. Tolerates fluctuating groundwater tables. Most productive on submontane, fresh to moist, nutrient-rich (alluvial and seepage) sites. Characteristic of nutrient-rich sites." [IPBC][E-flora]

Actions

Alopecia; Anodyne; Boil; Bruise; Canker; Cold; Collyrium; Cough; Dandruff; Gingivitis; Laxative; Pertussis; Psoriasis; Rejuvenation; Side; Skin; Sore; Stomach; Tonic; Tuberculosis; Wound [Duke]

Uses

Used as a tea plant [Turner,Davis]

"This tree was well known among the Kwakiutl for its medicinal value. Wilson (1969) has taken a tonic made from the bark every day since he can remember. He claims it keeps him young and strong. (When we talked to him, he was 75, but looked about 50. His youngest child was 10). The green bark is brought to a boil and allowed to stand overnight. Dried bark can also be used, but it must be broken into small pieces first.
Pitch collected from the small blisters on the young trees was used in many ways. It was mixed with water, boiled, and taken as a tonic and laxative, or for coughs and tuberculosis (Roberts, 1969; Brown, 1969; Cranmer, 1969; King, 1972). It was mixed with oulachen grease and eaten or rubbed on sores and boils (Brown, 1969). Sometimes for tuberculosis it was rubbed on a person's chest and back and left until it dropped off, or "until all the medicine was gone" (op. cir. ). It was also heated, mixed with catfish oil, and taken twice a day for constipation (Boas, 1966). Sometimes the root was held in the mouth to cure gum boils and canker sores (op. cit. ).
Grand fir branches were also used in Kwakiutl purification rites. A person would scrub his body with them until he was bleeding (Boas, 1935). In the winter ceremonials, the Cannibal Dancer of the Wolves rubbed the pollen all over his body (op. cir. ). Koskimo shamans wore head and neck rings of this tree (Boas, 1966)" [Turner&Bell]

"The pitch from the blisters of this tree was often rubbed on canoe paddles and other wooden articles, then scorched to provide a good finish (Barnett, 1955). According to Paul (1968), an infusion of the bark of the roots made an excellent hair tonic for falling hair and dandruff. It was prepared by pounding the bark from the roots, then steeping it in warm water. The resulting fluid was then rubbed into the scalp. Mr. Paul's late wife, a Nanaimo woman, sold a great deal of this hair tonic.
The Saanich mixed the pitch of this and other conifer species with venison suet, then rubbed this ointment on the skin to cure psoriasis and other skin diseases and to salve cuts and bruises (Paul, 1968). The Songish Indians warmed grand fir branches and applied them to the stomach and sides as a remedy for pains in those regions (Boas, 1890)." [Turner&Bell]

Ten Barks Medicine

It is part of the "ten barks" medicine used to treat TB and scrophula sores. This remedy contains; "Abies grandis (long strip of bark); Amelanchier alnifolia (strip of bark); Arbutus menziesii (long strip of bark, about 60 cm); Cornus nuttallii (strip of bark); Malus fusca (strip of bark); Oemleria cerasifonnis (stick about 30 cm long; said to work on your blood); Populus tremuloides (long strip of bark); Prunus emarginata (strip of bark from bottom part of tree); Rhamnus purshiana (strip of bark); Salix lasiandra (“Pussy Willow”; long strip of bark); and (possibly) Tsuga heterophylla (strip of bark; suggested during one interview as an ingredient by EC)." [Turner1990]

"Cut barks and sticks into piece, and boil together with a piece of rhizome of Polypodium glycyrriza about 20 cm long, preferably growing on a trunk or branch of Acer macrophyllum. (The rhizome was considered a sweetener, but also to have some medicinal properties" [Turner1990]

"Boil the materials for a long time, until the liquid is black and "really strong". Pour into sterilized jars. Cool to room temperature. Have patient drink about 250 ml (1 cup) per day until medicine is used up. Continue preparation and use as required, until affliction is healed." [Turner1990]

Cultivation

"Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils and succeeds in poor sandy soils[185]. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Trees succeeds in very exposed positions, even if the top is blown out by the wind the trees make one or more new tops and continue growing with no loss of vigour[11, 185]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. This species thrives exceedingly well in the moister parts of Britain, where it grows very quickly[11]. It is cultivated for timber in W. and N. Europe[50]. Trees are slow growing for the first few years but they are then quite fast with trees growing 60 - 100cm in height and 8cm in girth per year even when they are quite large[1, 185]. New growth takes place from early May to July[185]. Trees grow best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and in the far west of Britain[11]. Some trees have reached heights in excess of 60 metres in 100 years in Wales and Scotland, making them amongst the tallest trees in Europe[200]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is rarely harmed by disease, insects or frost[1]. The crushed leaves have a fruity orange-flavoured aroma[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]." [PFAF]

Propagation

"Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80]." [PFAF]

Synonyms

Further Reading

References
  1. [Duke] http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/ethnobot.pl?Abies%20grandis, Accessed Dec 23, 2014
  2. [E-flora] http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Abies grandis&redblue=Both&lifeform=1, Accessed Jan 12, 2015
  3. [PFAF.org] - Material obtained from Plants For A Future Database, http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abies+grandis, Accessed Jan 12, 2015

Abies lasiocarpa - Subalpine Fir

"Abies lasiocarpa is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind."
"Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil."[PFAF]

SUBTAXA PRESENT IN BC

Status: Native.[E-flora]
General: "Usually straight tree, seldom over 35 m tall (up to 50 m in some areas), with distinctly spire-shaped crown; bark grey, smooth, with resin blisters, becoming somewhat ridged with age; branches not spray-like; a common tree-line species, in stunted form." [IFBC-E-flora]
Leaves: "Needles flattened, blunt and usually notched at the tip; bluish-green, flat above, ridged beneath, having stomata on both sufaces; (2) 2.5-3 (4) cm long, tending to curve upwards, not horizontally spreading." [IFBC-E-flora]
Cones: "Seed cones erect, deep purple, 6-10 (11) cm long, 3-3.5 cm thick, the bracts deciduous; pollen cones bluish. Note: In the recently published Flora of North America, Hunt (1993) recognized Abies lasiocarpa as occurring only along the coast with the interior populations assigned to Abies bifolia. Differences between the two occur in the wood chemistry, lack of crystals in ray parenchyma in A. bifolia, shape of basal bud scales, and color of the periderm. However, introgression occurs throughout most of BC, thus hybrid populations predominate. The only unique populations of A. lasiocarpa are in coastal Alaska. Due to the introgression in BC and the relatively minor morphological differences between the two taxa, we include A. bifolia within A. lasiocarpa." [IFBC-E-flora]

Habitat / Range "Moist to mesic slopes in the montane to alpine zones; common in BC in and E of Coast-Cascade Mountains, locally frequent on Vancouver Island; N to S AK and YT, E to SW AB and S to OR, N NV, AZ and NM." [IFBC-E-flora]

Blooming Period: Late Spring
Fruit/Seed characteristics:
Colour: Brown
Present from Summer to Fall [USDA-E-flora]

Ecological Indicator Information

"A shade-tolerant to shade-intolerant, montane to subalpine, Western North American evergreen conifer distributed less in the Pacific than the Cordilleran region. Occurs predominantly in continental boreal climates; its occurrence increases with both elevation and continentality. Grows in mixed -species stands (usually with Engelmann spruce, Pacific silver fir, or mountain hemlock) on leeward slopes of Vancouver Island and Coastal Mountain Ranges. There are occasional pure stands at high elevations on exposed outcrops of base-rich rocks, or on valley bottoms affected by cold air drainage. On sites where it is shade-tolerant, it regenerates under closed-canopy stands, particularly on mycorrhizal Mors. (The mycorrhizae here may explain its tolerance of nutrient-poor soils.) Most productive on montane, fresh to moist, nutrient-rich (seepage) sites within wet cool temperate climates. Characteristic of continental boreal forests.[IPBC]" [E-flora]

Food Use

Cambium - Harvested in spring and eaten fresh. [Prentiss CHG]

Medicinal Use

The lichen Lobaria oregana was traditionally "Boiled with juniper and used as medicine for sore throats. Best for medicine if collected off Abies lasiocarpa [fir] (Turner and Thompson 2006)" [Rankovic LSM]

"Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (Pinaceae). Rocky Mountain fir. The Crow, who inhabited parts of Montana and Wyoming, burned the twigs and leaves of this species for incense purposes (Uphof 1968) and during certain ceremonies (Blankinship 1905). The Blackfoot, also of Montana and parts of Canada, inhaled the smoke from smudges made with the needles to treat headaches, to help an unconscious person recover, and to treat tuberculosis (Hellson 1974). It was also used as a fumigant for people whose faces had swollen because of venereal diseases and to help sick horses. The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma burned the needles as incense when people were frightened of thunder (Hart 1981). They considered the aromatic smoke useful for chasing away bad influences. The Nez Perce of Idaho, Oregon, and other parts of the United States burned the boughs as incense in sweathouses (Hart 1996). The Native Americans of the Rocky Mountain area of the United States burned the twigs and leaves for smoke that was used for unspecified purposes (Usher 1974)" [UAPDS]

Uses:
"The Crow, who inhabited parts of Montana and Wyoming, burned the twigs and leaves of this species for incense purposes (Uphof 1968) and during certain ceremonies (Blankinship 1905). The Blackfoot, also of Montana and parts of Canada, inhaled the smoke from smudges made with the needles to treat headaches, to help an unconscious person recover, and to treat tuberculosis (Hellson 1974). It was also used as a fumigant for people whose faces had swollen because of venereal diseases and to help sick horses. The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma burned the needles as incense when people were frightened of thunder (Hart 1981). They considered the aromatic smoke useful for chasing away bad influences. The Nez Perce of Idaho, Oregon, and other parts of the United States burned the boughs as incense in sweathouses (Hart 1996). The Native Americans of the Rocky Mountain area of the United States burned the twigs and leaves for smoke that was used for unspecified purposes (Usher 1974)." [UAPDS]

Activities

Antiseptic, Chest-Cold, Cold, Fever, Hair-Oil, Infection, Poultice, Rash, Skin, Sore, Wound [Duke]

Cultivation & Propagation

"Results of laboratory experiments by Ochs (1996) suggested that exudation of simple organic ligands by mycorrhizal roots and fungi enhanced dissolution of minerals whereas exudates from non-mycorrhizal roots and humic substances did not significantly affect weathering. This interpretation was confirmed by Arocena et al. (1999) who compared the chemistry of soil solution from ectomycorrhizosphere and non-ectomycorrhizosphere soils under the subalpine fir Abies lasiocarpa. In soil associated with mycorrhizal roots and fungi, concentrations of the base cations Ca2+, K+ and Mg2+ were higher than in soil devoid of roots and hyphal rhizomorphs. This was attributed to a reduced pH due to exudation of organic acids, as found by Cromack et al. (1979) who reported that the pH of soil colonised by mats of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hysterangium crassum was reduced to 4.9, compared with uncolonised soil which had a pH of 6.1." [BassiriRad NAP]

"Minerals such as mica and chlorite appear to be transformed at higher rates in the ecto-mycorrhizosphere of Abies lasiocarpa compared with the rhizosphere of NM roots (Arocena et al. 1999), resulting in higher cation concentrations (Arocena and Glowa 2000). This is important because it suggests that EMF not only increase uptake from the soil solution, but can also increase the capacity of the soil to supply nutrients." [Heijden ME]

"Forestry practices can affect the abundance of fruit bodies produced by ectomycorrhizal fungi. For example, several studies have found a positive correlation between the number of ectomycorrhizal host species and the number of ectomycorrhizal fungi that are fruiting (Ferris et al., 2000; Kranabetter, 2001). This suggests that planting mixtures of tree species would increase the range of ectomycorrhizal fungi that would fruit in a second-growth stand. Furthermore, Durall et al. (1999) found a clear threshold in gap size, above which the number of mycorrhizal fruit bodies decreased. In gaps larger than 900 m2, the number of species fruiting dropped by 87%. Production of hypogeous sporocarps (truffles) stopped altogether in clear-cut gaps of 0.1 ha or larger in a subalpine forest of Abies lasiocarpa and Picea engelmannii (Durall, unpublished) during the first 5 years after harvest, and this major reduction in fruiting appears to last up to 30 years (Amaranthus et al., 1994). In some studies, selective harvest or thinning appears to have little clear overall effect on production of epigeous or hypogeous ectomycorrhizal sporocarps, although the frequency of occurrence of individual species may be affected (Kranabetter, 2001)." [Dighton TFC]

ECM Relationships

Cultivation

"Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Occasionally planted for timber in N. Europe[50] but this species does not thrive in Britain[11]. It is a very cold-hardy tree but the milder winters of this country make it susceptible to damage by aphis and late frosts[1, 11, 81]. The sub-species A. lasiocarpa arizonica. (Merriam.)Lemmon. is growing somewhat better here[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma[185]." [PFAF]

Propagation
"Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80]." [PFAF]

Synonyms
A. subalpina. Pinus lasiocarpa. [PFAF]

Journals of Interest

References

  1. [Duke]http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/ethnobot.pl?Abies%20lasiocarpa Accessed Dec 23, 2014
  2. [E-flora]http://linnet.geog.ubc.ca/Atlas/Atlas.aspx?sciname=Abies lasiocarpa&redblue=Both&lifeform=1, Accessed Jan 12, 2015
  3. [PFAF.org] - http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Abies+lasiocarpa Material obtained from Plants For A Future Database. Accessed Jan 12, 2015

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