Practical ecological knowledge for the temperate reader. is a body of notes and excerpts taken from a variety of books, journals, and online sources. It's objective is to provide researchers with a quick view of where to begin when looking for utilitarian biota. Emphasis has been placed on looking for similar traits between species, genera, and families. By condensing material from a wide variety of disciplines, it is hoped that a lack of information on related species can be further researched and documented with a hitherto unknown degree of expediency.

Photographs may be used freely unless otherwise indicated. Drawings, range maps, figures and material are property of their respective copyright owners. All information on this site is provided without cost, as pertaining to Fair Use, for educational purposes and public discorse only.

No guarantee can be made as to the accuracy or authenticity of the material.

Legend (Mostly for my own reference but feel free to keep track of my progress :) Color Reference Guide (for select species pages which include colored uses at the top of their page (example: Acer macrophyllum)
J = Journal searched Caution
B = Book searched Edible Use
DJVU = .djvu book searched Other Use
U = Added to uses pages Medicinal Use

Book references are almost always included in the references page only, and not in the reference section of individual species pages, in consideration of printing.

The information presented on this site is provided for educational purposes. Self diagnosis and treatment, without due diligence, could be harmful and is not encouraged. Some information & images may be copyright. Every effort has been made to present the information in the spirit with which it was originally presented. Some data has been omitted for legal and/or practical consideration. There is some data not covered in the scope of this project, including, but not limited to, cell culture and large-dose animal studies. I have made comparisons and links between related species which may later prove erroneous. I have not verified the information for accuracy or authenticity. Many of the plants presented are poisonous, have poisonous properties, or could cause illness through misuse, allergic reaction, drug interactions and/or environmental contaminants. Some of these plants may be endangered or rare. Please use caution and mindfulness when harvesting any species for any use.

While all hazards should be taken into consideration, plants with the hazard label "Deadly" are especially dangerous and their toxins are not easily degraded or otherwise able to be rendered safe for human consumption. Small doses could be fatal, especially for children, elderly, and those with existing conditions.