Yellow Archangel - Lamium galeobdolon


Description

Synonyms

General "...growing to 0.3 m (1ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in) at a fast rate." [PFAF]
Lifecycle Perennial [PFAF][luontoportti]
Flowers The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.[PFAF] "Corolla yellow with brownish markings..." [PWOBC] Flowers in whorls forming an interrupted spike. [luontoportti] "Flowers are small, yellow and tubular". [Kingcounty]
Fruits 4-parted schizocarp.[luontoportti]
Leaves "...in a common horticultural variant with a whitish or silvery." [PWOBC] "...underside often dark violet, with toothed margin." [luontoportti] "...sharply toothed and shiny..." [Cornell] Hairy. Opposite. [Kingcounty]
Stem Stems are square [Kingcounty]
Properties "Leaves have unpleasant odor when crushed." [Cornell]
Habitat Part-shade in moist soils. [E-flora] Woods and shady hedgerows[5, 31], usually on heavier soils. Sometimes becoming locally dominant, especially after coppicing[17]. [PFAF]
Range Europe, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to Spain and Iran. [PFAF] Escapee in Finland, wild in Estonia and the Karelian isthmus.[luontoportti] "...escaping in many western Washington counties..." [Kingcounty]
Status Exotic. [E-flora]
Notes "Lower British Columbia is being invaded by L. galeobdolon variation florentium." [EatTheWeeds] There are a number of closely related taxa which hybridize with L. galeobdolon and in some cases are not unequivocally accepted as distinct species but considered subspecies or varieties by many authors.[Wiki-1]


Food

Medicinal Uses


Phytochemistry

Alkaloids

  • trigonelline [Yalcin, Kaya]

Benzoxazinoids
"...arylhydroxamic acid derivatives...". They "...play a role in the protection of plants against bacteria, fungi and insects in many crop plants." [Yalcin, Kaya]

  • 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-6-hydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (6-hydroxy blepharin)(aerial parts) [Alipieva et al.]
  • DHBOA-Glc (aerial parts) [Alipieva et al.]
  • blepharin (aerial parts) [Alipieva et al.]
  • DIBOA (aerial parts) [Alipieva et al.]
  • DIBOA-Glc (aerial parts) [Alipieva et al.]

Betaines
"Betaines are naturally occurring compounds that have an important role in osmotic stress resistance in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, algae, mammals, and plants." [Yalcin, Kaya]

  • Pipecolic acid betaine [Yalcin, Kaya]
  • trans-4-Hydroxypipecolic acid betaine [Yalcin, Kaya]
  • Proline betaine [Yalcin, Kaya]
  • trans-4-Hydroxyproline betaine [Yalcin, Kaya]

Iridoid Diglucoside

  • 10-deoxymelittoside (aerial parts)*[EatTheWeeds]

C9 Iridoid Glucoside [Yalcin, Kaya]
"The most prominent compounds in Lamium species are iridoid glucosides." [Yalcin, Kaya]

  • harpagide (aerial parts)*[Alipieva et al.][EatTheWeeds]
  • 8-O-acetyl-harpagide (aerial parts)*[Alipieva et al.][EatTheWeeds]

Monomeric Phenylpropanoids [Yalcin, Kaya]

  • Salidroside (aerial parts)[Alipieva et al.] AKA Rhodioloside [Wiki-2]
*Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. flavidum.[EatTheWeeds]

6-Hydroxy blepharin (aerial parts) [Ency TCM V.3]


Cultivation

"A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and conditions[200]. It grows well in heavy clay soils[17], though it prefers a light calcareous soil[1]. Dislikes dry soils[31]. This species succeeds even in dense shade, growing well under trees[31, 200]. Once established, it can also succeed in drought conditions under the shade of trees, providing there is plenty of humus in the soil[190]. There are at least four sub-species, L. galeobdolon montanum is the form generally found wild in Britain and it is a triploid. L. galeobdolon luteum and L. galeobdolon flavidum are both diploids[187]. L. galeobdolon argentatum is the more rampant form, its clone 'Variegatum' is a commonly used ground cover plant for shady places[187]. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233]. A very invasive plant, sending out long prostrate shoots that root at intervals along the stems[31, 200]. Special Features: Attractive foliage, Naturalizing."[PFAF]

Maintenance: "Trim back to 6 to 8 inches after flowering to keep looking neat and promote healthy growth. Keep soil moist, especially during dry spells." [Cornell]
Groundcover: "A good ground cover plant, spreading rapidly by means of its rooting stems and succeeding even in dense shade. It is very vigorous, however, and can smother small plants[31, 197, 200]. It does very well in woodlands[K]." [PFAF]

Propagation

"Seed - usually self sows freely and should not require human intervention. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. The seed can also be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe. Division in spring. Succeeds at almost any time in the growing season. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring."[PFAF] "Propagate by seed, cuttings, division or separation. Make stem cuttings in late spring or early summer. Divide in fall or spring." [Cornell] "Because yellow archangel spreads readily by stem cuttings, it is very important to discard plant material in such a way as to prevent spreading." [Kingcounty] "Spreads via rhizomes and stolons." [ARA]


Lamium Sp.; HARPAGOSIDE [DukePhyt]


References


Page last modified on Sunday, April 22, 2018 8:26 PM